In 2009, the publishing house “Knizhkin Dom” issued a book of Lev Krivitsky Evolutionism. Volume One: History of Nature and the General Theory of Evolution. In this book, the author devoted a section to discuss Yanchilin’s theory of discrete motion of quantum entities.
Evolutionism. Volume One: History of Nature and the General Theory of Evolution
Publishing house “Knizhkin dom”
Pages with disscusion Yanchilin’s theory of discrete motion
8.6. Movement in the Quantum World as a Prerequisite of the Cosmic Order
A very interesting, although far from impeccable interpretation of movement in the quantum world was proposed by the Russian physicist V. Yanchilin. Not only to interpretation, but also the author’s reasoning about understanding of the elementary order of the quantum world are important. Here is how the author describes the initial state on the way to his explanation of quantum processes, “When I was studying quantum mechanics at the university and tried to find out what in fact describes its processes, I could not understand anything. I can say the same about other my fellow students. At least, we understood it less than Feynman, who, he said, did not understand quantum mechanics. Teachers consoled us and said something like the following, “Do not try to understand anything in quantum mechanics, instead learn to work with a mathematical apparatus, and understanding will come later.” But, despite such promises, understanding has not come. We have received not understanding, but just getting used to formulas” (Yanchilin VL. Logic of the Quantum World and the Origin of Life on Earth – M.: New Center, 2004 – 151 p., p. 89).
Misunderstanding led the author to constant reflections, to which, in addition, his wife Firyuza urged him asking to explain how an electron actually moves. As a result, the author tried to substantiate to some extent a visual model of fundamentally not visual microcosm processes, which led him to the notion of discrete motion. Such a movement, according to the author, is due to the property of an electron (and other elementary particles) to disappear from one point of space and appear in another. He interprets disappearance and appearance of this kind as quantum leaps.
An electron moves inside a virtual cloud, a volume of which is limited by that region of space in which a wave function is non-zero (Ibid., P. 92). As V. Yanchilin believes, this function is determined precisely by the ability of the electron to disappear and appear only within this cloud, and it disappears and appears at all points of the virtual cloud having a different momentum at different moments. For the shortest time, during which the light passes a distance equal to a nucleus of an atom, the electron has time to disappear and appear an infinite number of times, as a result of which it is located at once in all points of the same space. This time is approximately 10-23 seconds, because when traveling for less time the light speed will be exceeded and there will be a contradiction with general relativity.
An attempt to visualize the principally non-visual process of electron motion by means of the idea of its disappearance from one point and appearance in the other and with another momentum to the movement is not very successful here. Until we answer the question of how it disappears and how it appears, there will be no visuality. Since the days of Lucretia, we know the “golden rule” of materialistic philosophy, which is the basis of scientific knowledge: nothing from nothing,” that is, nothing does not disappear into nothing and nothing does not appear from nothing. This is the basis of the law of conservation of energy and any evolutionary doctrine. Therefore, remaining on the scientific ground, one cannot get rid of the following questions. Where the electron disappears? Where does it appear? From what it arises? What does it turn into? etc. Earlier we proved that the answers to these questions are beyond the natural human mode of perception, and they can be obtained on the basis of an artificial quantum mechanical mode of perception.
Here we have an entirely different task: to show how from the trajectory-free chaos, fundamentally non-visible movement, elements of order and “volatile”, instantly crumbling mobilization structures are formed, which are the prerequisite of cosmic ordering at the elementary level and form a macroscopic ordering of matter in extremely large masses.
Yanchilin calls the chapter of his book Visual Explanation of Quantum Paradoxes. We do not aspire to a clear explanation of quantum phenomena and paradoxes. Our task is to reveal the machinery of evolution and to show how in fact, already at the micro level, chaos is ordering.
- Yanchilin admits that an electron exists in the form of an electron cloud, but this cloud itself, in his opinion, is formed by disappearances and appearances of an electron as a particle at different points of the cloud, and the electron velocity distribution determines the shape of the cloud and its movement. Due to the constant appearances and disappearances of an electron outside the cloud, performed with a low but still nonzero probability, the electron cloud formed by electron jumps spreads out rather quickly, expands and occupies a volume bounded by certain obstacles, for example, a wall, an impenetrable screen, and etc. Thus, the motion of an electron in a cloud is completely chaotic, but in a short time, having its own radius of no more than 10-16 cm, it manages to visit all points of the cloud where it moves discretely. If we ignore the sequence of appearances and disappearances of an electron in different parts of the cloud, then, due to the extremely short time of its “flight” in the cloud, it can be concluded with some degree of convention that the electron is at all points of the cloud at the same time.
Electron as a particle is temporarily localized at a certain point in a virtual cloud in order to leave it in the next instant. Electron as a wave appearing at various points of the cloud with a certain probability wavyly spreads out of the cloud, skirting various obstacles and occupying a space bounded by impenetrable obstacles, which is called spreading a wave packet.
If this closed space is illuminated, the photons that break into it will create the probability of a collision of one of them with the electron that forms the cloud. In this case, a collapse of a wave function and an instantaneous collapse of the cloud will occur, a decrease in its size. The energy of the photon and a direction of its motion will change, and the electron will instantly receive the exact location (Ibid., p. 97).
In this case, a sharp decrease in the region of electron localization will cause an equally sharp increase in the magnitude of the electromagnetic field, which is created by its charge, the localization of the field in an extremely small volume. This will lead to an equally sharp increase in an uncertainty of the electron momentum. That is why one cannot simultaneously measure and accurately describe both the momentum and the location of an electron. The more definite a momentum becomes, the less definite the position in the cloud, and vice versa, which corresponds to the Heisenberg uncertainty relation.
It is also easy for the author to explain another paradox of quantum mechanics – the passage of a “point” electron through two holes simultaneously. The following is how V. Yanchilin describes this phenomenon.
“An electron in the form of a virtual cloud flies out of the source and moves to a screen with two holes. At the same time, the virtual cloud continuously increases in size. When the cloud reaches the screen, then some part of it passes through one hole, another part of it passes through another hole, and some part is reflected from the screen and moves in the opposite direction… If, with further movement, these wave packets are connected on the detector, then their interference will occur. Although there is only one electron. The motion of any other quantum object (for example, a photon) will occur in a similar way” (Ibid., p. 101). This explains the wave-particle duality and Bohr’s complementarity principle.
The example of the case of “overflow” of a quantum entity through a potential barrier explains a lot. A virtual cloud expands upward, while its density, which is directly proportional to the probability of detecting the particle, decreases depending on the height of the obstacle and a volume of the cloud. The total energy of the particle remains constant. The higher the barrier, the lower the cloud density at high altitude and the longer the cloud will flow through it. But the energy factor is more important than the density and is connected with the latter directly. The lower a density, the lower the energy of an electromagnetic field. It is energy, limitation of energy resources that do not allow the electron cloud to expand indefinitely.
As an example of the overflow of an elementary particle through a potential barrier, the author gives radioactive decay with the emission of alpha particles. He notes that if the particle were a classical (that is, macroscopic) object, it could never overcome the potential barrier of nuclear forces and fly out of the nucleus. The nuclear forces of attraction (strong interaction) are much stronger than the electromagnetic repulsive forces, but they act at very short distances. Inside the nucleus, the alpha particle does not have the energy to overcome nuclear forces. Only because the alpha particle is a quantum object, it gradually “seeps” out of the core in accordance with an example describing the “overflow” of a particle through a barrier (Ibid., P. 111).
Of course, we can also explain the so-called “tunnel effect”, that is, the passage of quantum entity through impermeable barrier.
The thought experiments given by V. Yanchilin, are very important for understanding the behavior of quantum entities. However, the model for their explanation – the discrete movement of micro-objects – is quite fantastic. Such unscientific fiction manifests itself in explaining the motion of an electron in separate virtual clouds, that is, under conditions of splitting of a wave packet.
The author mentally places the electron in a confined space filled with a virtual cloud and then separates this space by an impenetrable barrier. “So,” writes V. Yanchilin, “we have obtained two separate from each other rooms, within which only one electron moves discretely (chaotically). And if we start to move these rooms away from each other, the electron will continue to move chaotically being still in both rooms… A distance between the rooms can be made arbitrarily large – the electron will continue to move in two rooms” (ibid., P. 101).
Moreover, according to the author, wave packets can be located even at interplanetary or any cosmic distances; an electron (or any other microparticle) will “jump” from one packet to another thereby forming a virtual cloud in both packets. How does it manage not to overcome the superluminal barrier and the prohibition imposed on superluminal speed by general relativity?
It is very simple. It does not move, say, between the Earth, where there is one package, and Mars, where the other is transferred. It simply disappears and appears.
“It should be noted that the theory of relativity imposes a restriction only on the classical speed of motion of physical objects. And the chaotic (discrete) motion of an electron does not lead to an infinite velocity in the classical sense, since it is manifested only in the uncertainty of its motion” (ibid., Pp. 97-98).
It is obvious that such movement is as incomprehensible and miraculous as the creation of the material world from nothing by the Almighty God. The omnipotence of an electron that can almost instantly overcome giant distances simply disappearing from one packet and appearing in another does not explain the movement in the quantum world any more than the creation of the world in seven days.
It is not surprising that proceeding from a similar image of a “discrete” movement the author tries to explain the nature of life and the origin of life on Earth. It turns out that the physical prerequisite of all life on Earth is the biomass that arose as a result of the exchange of wave packets and made up a single whole. Therefore, when a person sleeps, he restores not only the energy resources of his organism, but his union with biomass by the exchange of wave packets.
However, let’s leave the biomass and miracle-working electrons that pervade it. Let’s return to those real issues that the author raises and leads to their solution with an undoubted talent and mobilization to an innovative search. The problem of uncertainty, nonlocality, and the trajectory-free motion of microparticles is posed and solved by V. Yanchilin in a completely new perspective, which undoubtedly contributes to a deeper interpretation of quantum mechanics that allows us to answer the main question: how elements of order and certainty are formed from the chaos of the indefinite motions of microparticles. Let us turn again to the texts of V. Yanchilin, to the logic of his research and to the formulation of the problem:
“The problem was not to understand this uncertainty, but to understand how it is formed. For example, an electron has very small dimensions, less than 10-16 cm, and therefore it can be regarded with precision as a point. But on the other hand, because of the uncertainty in motion, an electron can occupy a sufficiently large volume. For example, in an atom of hydrogen an electron exists in the form of a cloud, whose dimensions are about 10-8 cm. It is the dimensions of the electron cloud that determine a size of an atom. How does an electron manage to fill a volume that is larger than its size by 1024 times? The electron must move at infinite speed to fill such a volume of space. But the speed of an electron is very small, it is much less than the speed of light” (Ibid., P. 90)
These are the origins of the author’s reflections, on the basis of which he makes a “quantum leap” to substantiate his idea of a discrete movement. We hope that the reader will forgive us the lengthy quotations that we use in this section of our work in order to draw on the extremely original reflections of the quoted author to understand the evolutionary significance of quantum paradoxes. As we have already seen, the author solves the problem of movement of microparticles by introducing a visual image of a non-visual process:
“So if an electron disappears quickly enough and appear (it performs “quantum leaps”), then it will be able to visit all points of a sufficiently large region in a very short time” (Ibid., p. 91).
So, a virtual cloud according to Yanchilin is formed by chaotic movements of an electron, which does not move at a great speed in the cloud formed by it, but it simply disappears and appears at a great speed at its various points, and then beyond it, which contributes to the expansion of the cloud – to the spreading of the wave packet. It seems that everything is exactly the opposite. Not disappearance and the appearance of an electron form an electronic cloud, but the disappearance and appearance of virtual particles in the cloud form temporary and volatile, rapidly decaying condensations that allow us to treat an electron as a particle. Appearances and disappearances correspond to the nature of virtual particles, which in fact differ from other elementary particles, that they are generated by differences in the energy of the physical vacuum, immaterial emptiness, material nothingness. In relation to them, we, at least, can make an assumption, where they come from and where they disappear. They arise from matter, from which in the process of “space engineering” the spacetime of our Metagalaxy is formed, which, like any matter, has certain measures of motion in the form of minimal energy emissions. These emissions by no means signify a violation of the law of conservation of energy, because they are caused by fluctuations, random deviations in the state of matter of the vacuum from which spacetime of our Universe is “woven” (and which fences Metagalaxy from other Universes).
Each microparticle is a quantum of a field forming it, that is, a cloud of virtual particles that constantly fluctuate, accidentally run into vacuum condensates at a certain point in the cloud and immediately scatter to gather at another point. This is the source of the apparent appearances and disappearances of an electron as a particle. Electron as a particle is a quantum of an electronic field, just like a photon is a quantum of an electromagnetic field, a boson is a quantum of a weak interaction of a bosonic field, a gluon is a quantum of a strong interaction of a gluon field, a graviton, if it exists, is a quantum of a gravitational field, etc. Quantum is short-term tearing of the spacetime continuum at the micro level. Therefore, the transition from a quantum to a quantum can occur only spasmodically. Such tears are formed by the random gathering of virtual particles in various parts of the field clouds they form. The very mechanics of appearance and disappearance of such gathering is described by V. Yanchilin as absolutely impeccable.
Electron as a cloud consists of virtual particles, which, by means of their appearances and disappearances, create chaos that determines the statistical preconditions for appearance and disappearance of an electron as a quantum particle in various, unpredictable locations in the cloud. The cloud spreads wavy, in accordance with the “packing” of virtual particles in wave packets. These packets are different in density and energy. A wave packet tends to expand, fill a certain space, the configuration of which is determined by force fields or any other barriers that are impermeable to the packet. The expansion of a packet resembles diffusion of liquid, and its spread through various barriers is similar to the flow of fluid through holes in the vessel.
But the propagation of the cloud is not unlimited, its limits are determined by the energy reserve of virtual particles, which, under the influence of the medium’s resistance, drops to zero and extinguishes the probability of virtual particles being propagated beyond the bouder of the packet.
Collapse of a wave function leading to the almost instantaneous disappearance of the electron cloud in the collision of an electron as a particle with another particle (for example, a photon) is explained by the fact that at this moment an electromagnetic field scattered in the cloud sharply changes its localization and concentrates in the volume of the electron as a particle, as a result of which the energy supply for the appearance of virtual particles outside this volume is exhausted.
Electron as a particle, respectively, plays the role of a mobilization structure in a virtual cloud that forms it. It emerges from chaos of virtual particles through their random self-organization and organizes the movement of the virtual cloud in a certain order, depending on environmental conditions and on the basis of expansion into the external world (as far as the energy resources of its electromagnetic field allow it). But the mobilization structures of elementary particles are the most unreliable and unstable in the world. Having arisen in one spot of a cloud that forms them, they immediately disintegrate and immediately arise in another, ensuring the subordination of the mechanics of motion in the microcosm to probabilistic laws.
Due to the flexibility and instability of electronic clouds, the unique ability of wave packets to bypass all kinds of obstacles and seep through material entities, huge masses of elementary particles overlapping each other acquire the ability to build the most diverse orders of macroscopic level. So the unstable mobilization structures of the elementary parts become a prerequisite of the cosmic order.
Download a section in the book by Lev Krivitsky where the author discusses Yanchilin’s theory about discrete motion (in Russian):